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Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

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أبو بكر الصديق أول الخلفاء الراشدين


الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام الأتمان الأكملان على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وأصحابه أجمعين.

 

أما بَعْدُ، يَقولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَل في كتابه الكريم: ﴿مِنَ المُؤمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَاهَدوُاْ اللهَ عَلَيهِ فَمِنهُم مَنْ قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنهُم مَّنْ يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلُواْ تَبدِيلاً﴾ الأحزاب/ ٢٣.

 

ومن هؤلاء العظام أفضل الصحابة والأولياء سيدنا أبي بكرٍ الصديق رضي الله عنه.

 

ترجمته:

 

هو أبو بكر الصديق واسمه عبد الله بن أبي قحافة عثمان بن عامر القرشي وقيل كان اسمه في الجاهلية "عبد الكعبة" فسماه رسول الله صلى اللهِ عليهِ وسلم "عبد الله" يلتقي نسبه مع نسب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في مرة بن كعب، وَأُمُّهُ أُمُّ الخَيرِ سلمى (وقيل ليلى) بنت صخر بن عامر وهي بنت عم أبي قحافة.

 

Praise be to Allah and may Allah increase the honor and raise the rank of our Master Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam.

 

Thereafter, Allah ta^ala said in the Qur’an:

 

﴿مِنَ المُؤمِنِينَ رِجَالٌ صَدَقُواْ مَا عَاهَدوُاْ اللهَ عَلَيهِ فَمِنهُم مَنْ قَضَى نَحْبَهُ وَمِنهُم مَّنْ يَنتَظِرُ وَمَا بَدَّلواْ تَبدِيلاً

 

Verse 23 of Surat-ul-Ahzab means: “There are men among the believers, who were honest in the oath they made to Allah, some have died and some are still waiting to follow the same path, and they never changed their oath.”

 

 

Among these great ones is the best of the Companions and of the awliya’ (upright Muslims), our Master Abu Bakr as-Siddiq may Allah raise his rank.

 

He is Abu Bakr as-Siddiq and his name is ^Abdullah, the son of Abu Quhafah, the son of ^Amir al-Qurashiyy. It was said that his name during the state of ignorance (Jahilyah) was ^Abdul-Ka^bah (means the slave of Ka^bah), then the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam named him ^Abdullah. His lineage meets the lineage of the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam in Murrah, the son of Ka^b. His mother is Umm al-Khayr Salma (and it was said Layla), the daughter of Sakhr, the son of ^Amir, the son of ^Amru. She was the cousin of Abu Quhafah.

وُلَِد بعد عام الفيل بنحو ثلاث سنين،كان أبيض اللون نحيف الجسم خفيف العارضين معروق الوجه (أي قليل اللحم) ناتئ الجبهة، وعن أنس أنَّهُ قال: "كان أبو بكر يخضب بالحناء والكتم (نبت يصبغ به).

 

He was born about three years after the Year of the Elephant, he was described as being a white man. He was thin built with a swollen forehead. Anas said: “Abu Bakr used to anoint with hena and

al-katam (a plant which people anoint with).”

 

وكان من رؤساء قريش وعلمائهم، حليمًا وقورًا مقدامًا شجاعًا صابرًا كريمًا رؤوفًا. هو أجود الصحابة، أولُ من أسلم من الرجال وعمره سبع وثلاثون سنة عاش في الإسلام ستًا وعشرين سنة. وبويع له بالخلافة يوم وفاة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في السنة الحادية عشرة من الهجرة وأجمعت الصحابة كلهم على خلافته.

 

He was among the leaders and scholars of Quraysh, clement, tolerant, courageous, brave, patient, generous, and merciful in his disposition;

and was the most generous of the Companions.

He was the first among the men to embrace Islam at the age of 37, and lived 26 years in Islam. He was given the allegiance as Khalifah (Caliph) on the day Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam died in 11 AH, all the Companions agreed on his caliphate.

 

وقد أورد ابن الجوزي في كتاب "صفة الصفوة" في تسميته بعَتيق ثلاثة أقوال: أحدها روي عن عائشة أنها سُئِلَت لم سمي أبو بكر عتيقًا، فقالت نظر إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: "هذا عتيق الله من النار" والثاني أنه اسم سمته به أمه قاله موسى بن طلحة، والثالث أنه سمي لجمال وجهه قاله الليث بن سعد.

 

Ibnul-Jawziyy mentioned three sayings in his book “Sifat-us-Safwah” about naming Abu Bakr “^Atiq”: One is what was related that ^A’ishah said when she was asked why was Abu Bakr named ^Atiq, she said: Once the Messenger of Allah sallAllahu ^alayhi wa sallam looked at him and said: “This is the one whom Allah would spare from Hellfire.” The second is what Musa Ibn Talhah said that his mother named him with that name. The third is what al-Layth Ibn Sa^d said that he was named with it because of the beauty of his face.

 

 

وَسَمَّاهُ صلى اللهُ عليه وسلم صديقًا وقال: "يكون بعدي إثنا عشر خليفة أبو بكر لا يلبث إِلا قليلاً"، وكان علي بن أبي طالب يحلف بالله أنَّ اللهَ أنزل اسم أبي بكر من السماء صديق. أ.ﻫ.

 

وأخرج الحاكم في المستدرك عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: جاء المشركون إلى أبي بكر فقالوا هل لك إلى صاحبك يزعم أَنَّهُ أُسرِيَ به الليلة إلى بيت المقدس قال أوقال ذلك قالوا نعم فقال: صدق إني لأصدقه بأبعد من ذلك بخبر السماء غدوة وروحة، فلذلك سمي الصديق. (ذكره السيوطي في تاريخ الخلفاء).

 

The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam named him “Siddiq” means the trustworthy because of how strongly he believed in all what the Prophet said. He also said: “There will be twelve caliphs after me, Abu Bakr as-Siddiq will not be around for long.” ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib used to swear by God that Allah made the naming of Abu Bakr with “as-Siddiq” come down from heaven.

 

Al-Hakim related in “al-Mustadrik” that ^A’ishah may Allah raise her rank said: The blasphemers came to Abu Bakr and said to him:

“Look at what your companion is saying he is claiming that he went on a journey last night to Jerusalem.” He said: “Did he say that?” They said: “Yes”. He said: “Then he is truthful, I believe him concerning the news of the heavens in the morning and in the evening.” At that Abu Bakr was called “as-Siddiq”. This was mentioned by as-Suyutiyy in “Tarikh al-Khulafa’” (which means: “History of the Caliphs”).

 

قصة إِسلامه:

 

وقد أورد ابن الجوزي في كتاب "صفة الصفوة" قال حسان بن ثابت وابن عباس واسماء بنت أبي بكر وابراهيم النخعي: أول من أسلم أبو بكر، وقال يوسف بن يعقوب بن الماجشون: أدركت أبي ومشيختنا محمد بن المنكدر وربيعة بن أبي عبد الرحمن وصالح بن كيسان وسعد بن إبراهيم وعثمان بن محمد الأخنسي وهم لا يشكّونَ أنَّ أولَ القومِ إسلامًا أبو بكر.

 

وعن ابن عَبَّاس قال: أولُ من صلى أبو بكر رحمه الله.

وورد في قصة إسلامه رضي الله عنه أنه رأى يومًا في منامه وهو في الشام أن الشمس والقمر نزلا في حِجْرِهِ فأخذهما بيده وضمهما إلى صدره وأسبل عليهما رداءه، ثُمَّ انتبه من نومه فذهب إلى راهب يسأله عن الرؤيا. فقال الراهب: "يخرج في زمانك رجلٌ يقال له محمدٌ الأمين تتبعه ويكون من قبيلة بني هاشم وهو نبي ءاخر الزمان، وأنت تدخل في دينه وتكون وزيره وخليفته من بعده قد وجدتُ نعته وصفته في التوراة والزبور". فلما سمع سيدنا أبو بكر رضي الله عنه صفة النبي ونعته صلى الله عليه وسلم رَقَّ قلبه واشتاق إِلى رؤيته.

 

وما لبث أبو بكر رضي الله عنه أن رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأسلم فكان أول من أسلم من الرجال.

 

Ibn al-Jawziyy mentioned in his book “Sifat-us-Safwah”: “Hassan Ibn Thabit, Ibn ^Abbas, Asma’ Bintu Abi Bakr, and Ibrahim an-Nakh^iyy said: “The first one who embraced Islam was Abu Bakr.” Yusuf, the son of Ya^qub, the son of Majshun said: “My father and my shayks: Muhammad Ibnul-Munkadir, Rabi^ah Ibn Abi ^Abdur-Rahman, Salih Ibn Kaysan, Sa^d Ibn Ibrahim, and ^Uthman Ibn Muhammad al-Akhnasiyy; all of them had no doubt that Abu Bakr was the first one to embrace Islam.”

 

Ibn ^Abbas said: “The first one who prayed was Abu Bakr.”

 

It was mentioned about Abu Bakr’s embracing Islam that once while he was in ash-Sham (This area presently includes: Syria, Palestine, Jordan, and Lebanon), he saw in his dream that the sun and the moon fell in his lap; and that he put them in his dress. He woke up and went to a monk to ask him about this dream. The monk asked him: “Where are you from?” He answered: “From Makkah.” He asked him: “And what do you do?” He said: “Trading.” The monk said: “A man would appear in your lifetime his name is Muhammad al-Amin (means the trustworthy), he is from Baniyy Hashim; you will follow him and will be his minister and his successor. His attributes and description were mentioned in the Torah (Tawrah) the Zabur.”

 

Abu Bakr, may Allah raise his rank, was moved by what he heard and was so anxious to meet the Prophet. It was not long before he met Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam and embraced Islam, this has made him the first one to embrace Islam among the men.

 

مناقبه وفضائله:

 

عن أسماء بنت أبي بكر قالت: جاء الصريخ إلى أبي بكر فقيل له: أدرك صاحبك. فخرج من عندنا وإن له غدائر، فدخل المسجد وهو يقول: ويلكم أتقتلون رجلاً أن يقول ربي الله وقد جاءكم من ربكم، قال: فلهوا عن رسول الله وأقبلوا إلى أبي بكر فرجع إلينا أبو بكر فجعل لا يمس شيئًا من غدائره إلا جاء معه وهو يقول: تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام، أورده ابن الجوزي في صفة الصفوة.

Asma’, the daughter of Abu Bakr said: “Someone came to Abu Bakr screaming and said: “Rescue your companion.” He left us with braided hair. He entered the mosque and said: “Are you going to kill a man who is saying my Lord is Allah, and his Lord has sent him to you with the proofs.” At that moment they left the Prophet and came to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr then came back to us, touching his braided hair and saying: Glory to You the One Who deserves to be Exalted and not denied. This was mentioned by Ibn-ul-Jawziyy in his book “Sifat-us-Safwah”.

وذكر أهل العلم والتواريخ ذكروا أنَّ سيدنا أبا بكر رضي الله عنه شهد مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بدرًا وجميع المشاهد، وثبت مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم أُحد، ودفع إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رايته العظمى يوم تبوك، وأنه كان يملك يوم أسلم أربعين ألف درهم فكان يعتق منها ويقوي المسلمين، ولم يشرب الخمر لا في الجاهلية ولا في الإسلام وهو أول من جمع القرءان.

 

The people of knowledge, the historians, and the biographers mentioned that Abu Bakr took part in all of the battles with Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. In the battle of Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam gave him his great flag. They mentioned also that when he embraced Islam he had

forty-thousand Dirhams, which he spent on supporting the Muslims and buying slaves to free them. In addition to that he never drank alcohol neither in the state of ignorance (Jahilyah) nor in Islam. They also mentioned that Abu Bakr was the first one who gathered the Qur’an.

 

وذكر محمد بن إِسحاق أَنَّهُ أَسْلَمَ عَلى يَدِهِ من العشرة المُبَشَرينَ خمسة هم: عثمان بن عفان، وطلحة بن عبيد الله، والزبير بن العوام، وسعد بن أبي وقاص، وعبد الرحمن بن عوف رضي الله عنهم.

 

Muhammad Ibn Ishaq mentioned that five out of the ten whom the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam brought them the good news that they will be in Paradise embraced Islam by the call of Abu Bakr. They were: ^Uthman Ibn ^Affan, Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah,

az-Zubayr Ibn al-^Awam, Sa^d Ibn Abi Waqas, ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn ^Awf may Allah raise their ranks.

 

وقد كان أبو بكر رضي الله عنه رجلاً بكّاءً لا يملك دمعه حين يقرأ القرءان، وكان أفضل الصحابة وأذكاهم.

 

Abu Bakr was a man who cries a lot, he could not hold back his tears when he recites the Qur’an, he was the best Companion and the most intelligent one among them.

 

ومن فضائله رضي الله عنه ما شهد به عمر بن الخطاب حيث قال: "أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن نتصدّق ووافق ذلك مالاً عندي فقلت اليوم أسبق أبا بكر إن سبقته يومًا، قال فجئت بنصف مالي، فقال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما أبقيت لأهلك قلت: مثله، وأتى أبو بكر بكل ما عنده قال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ما أبقيت لأهلك. فقال: أبقيت لهم الله ورسوله، فقلت: "لا أسابقك إلى شئ أبدًا". أخرجه الترمذي.

 

Among his virtues is what was testified by ^Umar Ibnul Khattab, he said: “The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam ordered us to give charity and it happened that I had some money available at that time. I said to myself that today I want to be ahead of Abu Bakr so I presented half of my money for donation. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam said: “What did you leave for your family.” I replied: An equal amount. Abu Bakr then came with all of his money, the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam said to him: What did you leave to your family. Abu Bakr replied: I left for them the care of Allah and his Messenger. I said to Abu Bakr: You will always be ahead of me.”

 

وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "ما نفعني مال قط ما نفعني مال أبي بكر"، فبكى أبو بكر وقال: هل أنا ومالي إلاّ لك يا رسول الله.

 

Abu Hurayrah, may Allah raise his rank, said: “The Messenger of Allah said: I did not benefit from any wealth as I did from Abu Bakr’s. Abu Bakr then wept and said what means: “My money and I are at your service O Messenger of Allah.”

 

وعن قيس قال: اشترى أبو بكر بلالاً وهو مدفون في الحجارة بخمس أواق ذهبًا فقالوا: لو أبيت إلا أوقية لبعناك، فقال: لو أبيتم إلا مائة أوقية لأخذته.

 

Qays said: Abu Bakr bought Bilal while he was buried under the rocks for five ounces of gold. They said to him: “If you were to insist on paying only one ounce, we would have sold him to you.” He said: “If you were to insist on selling him for one-hundred ounces I would have bought him.”

 

ورعه رضي الله عنه:

 

وقد أورد ابن الجوزي في "صفة الصفوة" قال: عن زيد بن أرقم قال: كان لأبي بكر الصدِّيق مملوك فأتاه ليلة بطعام فتناول منه لقمة فقال له المملوك: مَا لَكَ كُنتَ تَسألُني كل ليلة لم تسألني الليلة قال: حملني الجوع، من أينَ جئت بهذا فقال: مررت بقومٍ في الجاهليةِ فرقيت لهم فوعدوني فلما أن كان اليوم مررت بهم فإذا عرس لهم فأعطوني فقال: أف لك كدت تهلكني فأدخل يده في حلقه فجعل يتقيأ وجعلت لا تخرج فقيل له: إن هذه لا تخرج إلا بالماء فدعا بعس من ماء فجعل يشرب ويتقيأ حتى رمى بها فقيل له: يرحمك الله كل هذا من أجل هذه اللقمة، فقال: لو لم تخرج إلا مع نفسي لأخرجتها سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول:

"كل جسد نبت من سحت فالنار اولى به" فخشيت أن ينبت شئ من جسدي من هذه اللقمة وهذا من ورعه رضي الله عنه.

 

Ibn al-Jawziyy mentioned in his book “Sifat-us-Safwah” that Zayd Ibn Arqam said: Abu Bakr used to have an owned slave, he brought him food one night, Abu Bakr took a bite of it. The slave said to him: “How come, you used to ask me every night and tonight you didn’t?” Abu Bakr replied: “Hunger is what made me not to ask you, where did you get this from?” He answered:

“I passed once by a people during the state of ignorance (Jahiliyah), I made ruqyah for them, they promised to give me some money for that; today I passed by them while they were having a wedding; they gave money and I bought this food from that money.”

 

*In fact this ruqyah is a blasphemous practice, they used to do that by uttering blasphemous words of worshipping a planet, the sun, the moon, or a king of the devils.

 

Upon hearing that, Abu Bakr said: “You were going to kill me.” He then inserted his hand in his throat and started to throw up; however, that bite did not come out. It was said to him that the bite will not come out unless he sips some water, he began to sip water until it came out. Then it was said to him: “May Allah have mercy upon you, you did all of that just for that bite.” He said: “Had it not come out except with my soul, I would have done so. I heard the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam saying:

 

"كل جسد نبت من سحت فالنار اولى به"

 

It means: “Hellfire is more deserving of every body that grew from unlawful consumption

توليه الخلافة:

 

بُويعَ رَضي اللهُ عَنهُ في سقيفة بني ساعدة يوم وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم الإثنين لاثنتي عشرة ليلة خلت من ربيع الأول سنة إحدى عشرة من مهاجر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. وذلك حين ذهب هو وعمر وبعض الصحابة ليتشاوروا في أمر الخلافة حتى قال عمر لأبي بكر: أبسط يدك. فبسط يده فبايعه ثم بايعه المهاجرون ثم الأنصار ثم كانت البيعة العامة في اليوم التالي.

 

Abu Bakr was given the allegiance as Caliph at the spot of Baniyy Sa^idah on the day Prophet Muhammad sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam died. It was on Monday the 12th of Rabi^ al-Awal in 11 AH.

This event took place when Abu Bakr, ^Umar, and some of the Companions went to consult about the Caliphate (succession of the Prophet), ^Umar said to Abu Bakr: “Extend your hand.” Abu Bakr did and ^Umar shook his hand pledging allegiance to him. Al-Muhajirun (those who migrated with the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah) followed him and the al-Ansar (those who supported al-Muhajirun in Madinah). On the following day all the people gave Abu Bakr the allegiance.

 

عن هشام بن عروة عن أبيهِ قال: لما وُلِيَ أبو بكر الخلافة خطب النَّاس فَحَمَدَ الله وأثنى عليه بما هو أهله ثم قال: "أما بعد أيها النَّاس قد وُليتُ أمركم ولستُ بخيركم، ولكنَّ اللهَ أَنزَلَ القرءان وسَنَّ النبيُّ صلى اللهُ عَليهِ وسلم السنن فعلمنا، اعلموا أنَّ أكيس الكيس التقوى، وأنَّ أحمق الحمق الفجور. إِنَّ أقواكم عندي الضعيف حتى ءاخذ له بحقه، وإِنَّ أضعفكم عندي القوي حتى ءاخذ منه الحق، أيُهَا النَّاس إِنَمَّا أنَا مُتَّبِع وَلَستُ بمُبتَدِعْ فإن أحسَنتُ فأعينوني وإِن زُغتُ فَقَوِّمُوني".

 

Hisham Ibn ^Arwah related that his father said: When Abu Bakr given the allegiance as Caliph, he delivered a speech to the people. He praised and thanked with the due praise and thanking Allah , he then said: “O people I was entrusted to lead you and I am not the best one among you. However, Allah revealed the Qur’an and the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam set the rules and taught us. Let it be known that the ultimate intelligence is piety and the ultimate foolishness is impiety. I will view the weakest among you as the strongest to me until I give him back what was taken from him unjustly, and I will view the strongest among you as the weakest to me until I take back from him the right that he has taken unjustly. O people I am just a follower and not an innovator, so support me if I am good and put me back on the straight path if I deviate.”

 

والمعلومُ أَنّهُ بَعدَ وَفَاةِ الرسولِ صَلىَ اللهُ عَليهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَظَمَتْ المُصيبةُ وَكَثُرَ النِفَاقُ وارتدَّ بعضُ القبائلِ، وامتنَعَ البَعضُ عن أَداءِ الزكاةِ. فأسرَعَ أبو بكرٍ رَضيَ اللهُ عَنهُ لمداركَةِ هذا الأمرِ العَظيمِ فأمَرَ بتجهيزِ الجيوشِ لِقِتَالِ أهلِ الرِدَّةِ وَمَنْ مَنَعَ الزَكَاةَ فتوجهَت الجيوشُ وَقَاتلوا المرتدينَ، وَقُتِلَ مُسيلمةُ الكذابُ، وَهَرَبَ طُلَيحَةُ بنُ خويلدٍ إلى أرضِ الشامِ وَكَانَ ادَّعَى النبوةَ ثم أسلمَ في زمنِ عمَر بن الخطابِ، واستشهدَ من الصحابةِ نحوُ سبعِمائةِ رجلٍ أكثرُهُم مِنَ القُراءِ.

كَمَا جَهَزَ رَضيَ اللهُ عَنهُ الجيوشَ لِفَتحِ بِلادِ الشَّامِ.

 

It is known that after the death of the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, calamity and hypocrisy increased. Some tribes apostatized and some others refrained from paying Zakah. Abu Bakr, may Allah raise his rank, rushed to confront these great matters. He ordered the armies to prepare to fight the people of apostasy and those who withheld Zakah. The armies moved on and fought the apostates. Musaylimah al-Kadhab was killed. (Musaylimah was nicknamed

“al-Kadhab” means “the liar” for claiming to be a prophet). Tulayhah Ibnu Khuwaylid, who claimed prophethood, fled to ash-Sham

(The land of present time: Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, and Jordan). However, later on he embraced Islam, during the caliphate of ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab.

 

Seven hundred of the Companions were martyred and most of them were from those who recited Qur’an.

Abu Bakr, may Allah raise his rank, also prepared the armies for opening the countries of ash-Sham.

 

إِستخلافه عمر بن الخَطَّابِ رضي اللهُ عنهما:

 

أخرج ابن سعد والحاكم عن ابن مسعود قال: أَفرس النَّاس ثلاثة: أبو بكر حين استخلف عمر، وصاحبة موسى حين قالت: استأجره، والعزيز حين تفرس في يوسف فقال لامرأته: أكرمي مثواه.

 

Ibn Sa^d and al-Hakim related that Ibn Mas^ud said: “The ones with the most insight are three: Abu Bakr when he chose ^Umar as his successor, The woman who her father about Musa: “Hire him.” [She later became his wife]. And al-^Aziz when he had an insight about Yusuf and asked his wife to be generous to him.”

 

وروي أن أبا بكرٍ لَمَّا ثَقِلَ دَعَا عَبدُ الرَّحمَنِ بن عوف فقال: أخبرني عن عمر بن الخَطَّاب فقال: ما تسألني عَن أمرٍ إلا وأنتَ أعلم به مني فقال أبو بكر: وإن؛ فقال عبد الرَّحمَنِ بن عوف: هو والله أفضل من رأيك فيه، ثُمَّ دعا عثمان بن عفان فقال: أخبرني عن عمر فقال: أنت أخبرنا به فقال: على ذلك. فقال: اللَّهُمَّ عِلمي بِهِ أن سريرته خير من علانيته وأنه ليس فينا مثله، وشاور معهما سعيد بن زيد وأسيد بن الحضير وغيرهما من المهاجرين والأنصار.

 

It was related that when Abu Bakr was gravely ill he called upon ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn ^Awf and said to him: “Tell me about ^Umar Ibn al-Khattab.” He said: “When you ask me about a matter, it turns out that you know about it more than me.” Abu Bakr said: “Even though.” ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn ^Awf said: “I swear by Allah that he is the best among those whom you give your opinion about.” Then Abu Bakr called upon ^Uthman Ibn ^Affan and said to him: “Tell me about ^Umar.” He said: “You know him way better than us.” Abu Bakr then said: “I made my decision that it will be him. O God I know that the hidden part of ^Umar is better than what he shows openly, and that there is no one among us who is like him.” He also consulted with Sa^id Ibn Zayd, Usayd Ibn al-Hudayr, and others from al-Muhajirin (immigrants who came from Makkah) and al-Ansar (those who supported the immigrants in Madinah).

 

وأخرج ابن عساكر عن يسار بن حمزة قال: لَمَّا ثَقِلَ أبو بكر اشرف على النَّاسِ من كوة فقال: أيها النَّاس إني قد عهدت عهدًا، أفترضون به، فقال النَّاس: رضينا يا خليفة رسول الله، فقام عليٌ فقال: لا نرضى إلا أن يكون عمر، قال: فَإِنَّهُ عُمَر، ذكر ذلك السيوطي في "تاريخ الخلفاء".

 

Ibn ^Asakir related that Yasar Ibn Hamzah said: When Abu Bakr got gravely ill, he appeared to people from a small window; he said to them: “O people I have decided to entrust somebody to the caliphate, are you going to accept that ?” The people said: “We accepted that O the Caliph (successor) of the Messenger of Allah.” ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib stood and said: “We will never accept other than ^Umar.” Abu Bakr said: “It will be ^Umar.” This was mentioned by as-Suyutiyy in the “Tarikh al-Khulafa’”.

 

مرض رضي الله عنه ثم توفي في السنة الثالثة عشرة عن ثلاث وستين سنة من عمره وكانت خلافته سنتين وثلاثة اشهر وثلاثة عشر يومًا. ودفن في بيت عائشة ورأسه عند كتفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد أن كان أوصى بذلك، وارتجت المدينة بالبكاء ودهش القوم.

 

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq got sick and died in 13AH at the age of 63. His Caliphate lasted two years, three months and thirteen days. He was buried in ^A’ishah’s house. His head was placed by the shoulders of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam as he requested before he died. Madinah was shaken with crying and people were astonished.

 

ولما توفي جاء علي بن ابي طالب كرم الله وجهه باكياً مسرعًا مسترجعًا حتى وقف بالباب وقال: يرحمك الله أبا بكر لقد كنت والله أول القوم اسلامًا، صدّقت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين كذبه الناس وواسيته حين بخلوا، وقمت معه حين قعدوا، وسمَّاك الله في كتابه صديقًا فقال:

(والَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ) الزمر /33.

^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib may Allah raise his rank heard the news of Abu-Bakr's death, he rushed to the scene. Weeping and remembering this great Companion, he stood at the door of ^A’ishah's house and said:

May Allah have mercy upon you Abu Bakr. I swear by Allah that you were the first among the people to embrace Islam. You believed the Messenger of Allah when the people belied him and you supported him when they left him, and Allah the Exalted named you in the Qur’an Siddiq.”

 

قال أهل السير توفي أبو بكر ليلة الثلاثاء بين المغرب والعشاء لثمان ليالٍ بقينَ من جمادى الآخرة سنة ثلاث عشر من الهجرة وهو ابن ثلاث وستين سنة وأوصى أن تغسله زوجته وأن يدفن إلى جانب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم. وصلى عليه عمر بين القبر والمنبر ونزل في حفرته ابنه عبد الرحمن وعمر وعثمان وطلحة بن عبيد الله.

 

The biographers mentioned that Abu Bakr died on Tuesday night between sunset and nightfall with eight nights remaining from the month of Jumadal-‘Ula in 13 AH, he died at the age of 63.

He requested in his will that his wife wash him, and to be buried beside the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. ^Umar prayed for him between the grave and the minbar. His son

^Abdur-Rahman, ^Umar, Uthman, and Talhah Ibn ^Ubaydillah got down in the hole that was dug to be his grave.

 

توفي الصدِّيق وله من الولد: عبد الله وأسماء ذات النطاقين وعبد الرَّحمَن وعائشة ومحمد وأم كلثوم.

 

 

He was survived by ^Abdullah, Asma’Dhatu-Nitaqayn, ^Abdur-Rahman, ^A’ishah, Muhammad, and Umm Kulthum.

 

 

اللَّهُمَّ احشرنا مع زمرة الصديقين وثبتنا على اتباعهم وأمِتْنا على محبتهم.

 

 

O Allah make us in the Hashr (Assembly) with the righteous Muslims (siddiqs), and make us steadfast to their path and die while loving them.

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